Melanie kleins concepts
This is considered by many to be her great contribution to psychoanalytic thought. Kleinian technique In her technique Klein stresses Freud's concept of transference, meaning the conscious but also unconscious expression of past and present experiences, relationships, thoughts, phantasies and feelings, both positive and negative, in relation to the analyst.
The depiction of Melanie Klein is quite unfavorable: the play suggests that Hans' death was a suicide and also reveals that Klein had analysed these two children. This radically different, pioneering work with children was not well received in Berlin, and she was treated with some suspicion and disdain.
Melanie klein object theory
With the encouragement and interest of Karl Abraham, she began to analyse young children. Set in London in , the play involves a conflict between Melanie Klein and her daughter Melitta Schmideberg , after the death of Melanie's son Hans Klein. Her theory focuses primarily on development within the first year of life, however emphasizes that these continue to develop throughout life. This groundbreaking paper first mentions the concept of projective identification which will become a much used and appreciated concept for future generations of psychoanalysts. She moved to Pitlochry in Scotland for a short time, where she treated ten-year-old 'Richard'. As a divorced woman whose academic qualifications did not even include a bachelor's degree, Klein was a visible iconoclast within a profession dominated by male physicians. Comparable to that of free association in adult psychoanalysis, Klein's play technique sought to interpret the unconscious meaning behind the play and interaction of children. A summary of some of Klein's key points is as follows: The child's inner world has exaggerated, idealized and persecutory objects are phantasies, not simple representations of experiences with parents. Alix and James Strachey however, became fascinated with her work and, in , invited her to visit London, where the lectures she gave were warmly received. In Klein published 'Notes on some schizoid mechanisms'. In psychological terms, Eros properly, the life pulsation , the postulated sustaining and uniting principle of life, is thereby presumed to have a companion force, Thanatos death pulsation , which seeks to terminate and disintegrate life. It refers to a constellation of anxieties, defences and internal and external object relations that Klein considers to be characteristic of the earliest months of an infant's life that continues to varying degrees throughout life. Pathological organisations The term 'pathological organisations of the personality' refers to a family of extremely unyielding and tightly knit defences. It was during their time together that Klein expressed interest in the study of psychoanalysis. Klein saw the baby as relating to the world via its physical relationship with the world, with the initial importance of its mother, initially as a set of part-objects.
Child analysis[ edit ] While Freud's ideas concerning children mostly came from working with adult patients, Klein was innovative in working directly with children, often as young as two years old.
Following Freud she emphasized the significant role that parental figures played in the child's fantasy life, and considered that the timing of Freud's Oedipus complex was incorrect.
Loss and Mourning: The Depressive Position Klein, like Alix Strachey, had psychoanalytic treatment with Karl Abraham in Berlin, though this was sadly brought to an end after only nine months due to Abraham's illness and death at the end of Phantasies about the maternal body link to Klein's new understandings of primary femininity and both the male and female Oedipus complexes.
Although Melanie Klein bases her theory on Freud, she contends that his suggested time frame is flawed, with the superego present from birth, and the oedipal complex occurring in the first year of life.
The object and the subject are separated,  allowing for a more simplistic approach to addressing the deprived areas of need when used in the clinical setting. She replaces Freud's stages of development with descriptions of positions that are a specific configuration of object relationsanxieties and defenses which persist throughout life.
Melanie klein object relations theory ppt
Internal objects Klein's observation of children's play led her to see their preoccupation with what went on inside themselves and their experience of the people in their world. This groundbreaking paper first mentions the concept of projective identification which will become a much used and appreciated concept for future generations of psychoanalysts. They went on to have three children, but the marriage was unhappy and Klein became very depressed. This, in conjunction with an unhappy marriage, soon led Klein to seek out means of treatment. Comparable to that of free association in adult psychoanalysis, Klein's play technique sought to interpret the unconscious meaning behind the play and interaction of children. The chief characteristic of the paranoid-schizoid position is the splitting of both self and object into good and bad, with at first little or no integration between them. Loss and Mourning: The Depressive Position Klein, like Alix Strachey, had psychoanalytic treatment with Karl Abraham in Berlin, though this was sadly brought to an end after only nine months due to Abraham's illness and death at the end of Klein's theoretical work incorporates Freud's belief in the existence of the "death pulsation" , reflecting the fact that all living organisms are inherently drawn toward an inorganic state, and therefore, in an unspecified sense, contain a drive towards death. Contradicting Freud, she concluded that the superego was present from birth. She has been criticized for placing excessive emphasis on inner systems and later object-relations theorists eg. This radically different, pioneering work with children was not well received in Berlin, and she was treated with some suspicion and disdain. One of the characters, Irene, has an obsession with Kleinian theory, and uses it to "guide" her in the upbringing of her son, Bertie. They are defined as primitive internalized mental images of instincts and drives. Ultimately the unique mental and emotional capacities of an individual result from the interaction of these phantasies with actual experience, and the emotion that ensues.
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