It is written by the historian Silvio Lanaro and is, rather significantly, entitled 'Da Modernization classic thesis a Italiani'—'Peasants into Italians'xv. As we can see, the debate around the role of the state in rural politicization, based on readings of Weber's Peasants goes a lot further than the simple question of the efficiency of the administration and the limits of the image of those who represented it: it directly concerns the virtual integration into the state and the role of rural elites between that which is local and that which is national.
This argument was linked to Gramsci's lucid analysis but it transported a little too systematically the reality of the political exclusion of peasants during the first half of the 19th century to the second half of the same century.
This is the easiest criticism to refute as it takes a caricature of historiography as its starting point and puts forward a kind of anthropological refusal of modernisation in the name of consideration of inequalities and balance of power.
I will therefore attempt to show the following: - at first a number of points of discussion considering the relationships between modernization and agrarianism in the definition of a " partial rural citizenship " using readings of Eugen Weber ' s texts of Peasants into Frenchmen.
After decades of derision, moreover, a loose or weak version of it is experiencing a revival in the academy as well -- something that would assuredly delight or appall the bloodied combatants in the field's original theoretical battles.
At this point, I will make one remark only in this analysis of reciprocal representations: The state is strictly synonymous with authority by means, primarily, of taxation, conscription and public order.
One major challenge came from Samuel Huntington. This is why the pair: integrative politicization—conflicting politicization is necessary and even primordial. This is true of post-union Italy, of Spain in the sexenio democratico and the Restauration, of Prussia who experienced her great liberal reforms, it is also true of Greece under King George who, input in place universal suffrage and reorganised local administration.
We know that such an approach is not sufficient but the interest naturally lies with the analysis of the evolution of their register and the passing from one dominant image to another: from the primitive savage to the civilised patriot, from the interchangeable, passive peasant to a peasant who subversively defends the Republic in and 'conformist ' consent to the regime under the 3rd Republic.
The best example is Brittany where a new examination of the relations between 'Religion and political identity' was attempted for 'Creating the Nation in Provincial France to quote the study of Caroline Fordxiv.
Weber especially emphasizes the role of the school and schooling—defined, using period vocabulary as 'a serious undertaking for civilisation'. New research undertaken, for example, in Tuscany and Romagna, have let us value the period of unitary transition as a first step of politicization by integration"" This has made it possible to insist more strongly on the vectors of nationalisation previously left aside in the Italian case such as school or the army.