The negative effects of toxic substances on reproduction and pregnancy

The Statute of Health Insurance Act includes a list of agents considered to be potentially harmful for pregnant women and guidelines have been issued on the levels of exposure that should not be exceeded during pregnancy.

The negative effects of toxic substances on reproduction and pregnancy

Studies of couple fertility, miscarriage and birth defects, have shown conflicting results. The associations between titanium and silver concentrations in maternal hair and risks of neural tube defects were examined in the offspring. In most cases, infection risks can be avoided or minimised by adoption of simple control measures. The experience of many countries has shown that prevention of health risk caused by pesticides is technically feasible and economically rewarding for workers. With respect to the specific anaesthetic gases, halothane and nitrous oxide have been shown to both be fetotoxic and teratogenic in animals. Ribeiro A. Some effects may not become evident for years. Both men and women can be exposed in agriculture and greenhouses. Many environmental factors harmful to reproductive health disproportionately affect vulnerable and underserved populations, which leaves some populations, including underserved women, more vulnerable to adverse reproductive health effects than other populations. Risk assessment for biological agents should consider the nature of the agent, how infection is spread, how likely contact is, and what control measures there are [86]. Their small molecular size and lack of charge make inhalation a major route of exposure, and they are readily absorbed through the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Pesticides enter the body mainly through the skin, but also via inhaled air or through ingestion. Int J Toxicol. In some studies, exposure to solvents has also been related to preterm birth, neurobehavioral effects and childhood leukaemia [7] , [8] , [9].

Therefore, some countries have adopted a policy of transferring pregnant workers who would be required to prepare antineoplastic drug solutions to other jobs.

Risk assessment is an evolving process, based not only on toxicology, but also on a broad background of knowledge in fields ranging from chemistry to physiology and molecular biology and from environmental transport processes to applied statistics.

In: Klassen C. Suitable information, instructions and training should also be provided to the workers.

Reproductive toxicity categories

Because these chemicals are in the air, water, soil, food and consumer products, it can be hard for people to limit their exposure. All rights reserved. Occupational health and safety specialists must work with the scientific community at large to incorporate advances in the basic sciences into their extrapolations [47]. Also, patients should be advised that some large fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish, are known to contain high levels of methylmercury, which is known to be teratogenic. Environmental exposures: how to counsel preconception and prenatal patients in the clinical setting. E-facts No 53, The EU has also developed guidelines for the assessment of hazardous agents and processes as well as on what preventive measures can protect pregnant and breast feeding workers from the adverse effects of occupational exposure [80]. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics opinion on reproductive health impacts of exposure to toxic environmental chemicals. Ewing's sarcoma occurs most frequently in teenagers and young adults.

Chemical exposure of both women and men may cause chromosomal abnormalities or gene mutations in the offspring. In some studies, benzene exposure has been found to increase the risk of miscarriage and decrease birth weight [27][28][29]. Occupational exposures associated with male reproductive dysfunction.

Am J Obstet Gynecol ;— Action at the individual level can reduce exposure to some toxic chemicals 29, 31, 32 and informed consumer-purchasing patterns can send a signal to the marketplace to help drive societal change In men, lead may interfere with sperm DNA chromatin stability that is essential in maintaining the sensitive fertilisation process [39].

sds reproductive toxicity

Most observations of reproductive risk are based on general population studies rather than on any particular occupational groups. Azathioprine, cyclosporin A, and some antiviral agents, such as acyclovir, ganciclovir, ribavirin, and zidovudine have also induced adverse reproductive effects in animal experiments [70].

Governments have the responsibility to take some actions toward protecting workers' reproductive health.

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Reproductive effects caused by chemical and biological agents