The thyroid gland

Thyroid gland anatomy

The outer capsule is connected to the voice box muscles and many important vessels and nerves. The chosen first-line treatment will depend on the individual and on the country where being treated. When T3 and T4 levels are low in the blood, the pituitary gland releases more TSH to tell the thyroid gland to produce more thyroid hormones. The third hormone produced by the thyroid gland is called calcitonin. If you become hypothyroid, your heart rate, for example, may be slower than normal and your intestines work sluggishly, so you become constipated. To produce thyroid hormones, the thyroid gland needs iodine , an element contained in food and water. Recent studies on some populations are showing that excess iodine intake could cause an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease , resulting in permanent hypothyroidism. We do not offer individual consultations. It is butterfly-shaped and consists of two lobes located either side of the windpipe trachea. Examination of the thyroid gland includes the search for abnormal masses and the assessment of overall thyroid size. It is made up of two lobes - the right lobe and the left lobe, each about the size of a plum cut in half - and these two lobes are joined by a small bridge of thyroid tissue called the isthmus.

It may result from autoimmune diseases when the person's immune system starts to attack the body's own organspoor iodine intake or be brought on by use of certain drugs.

It is butterfly-shaped and consists of two lobes located either side of the windpipe trachea. The two halves lobes of the gland are connected in the middle called the isthmusgiving the thyroid gland the shape of a bow tie. How is my thyroid gland controlled? The disorders that occur in the lower neck more proximal to the thyroid gland are lined by epithelium resembling the thyroidal acinar epithelium.

Activation of the nervous system leads to improved concentration and faster reflexes Hormone imbalances: Overactive and underactive thyroid gland An overactive thyroid also known as hyperthyroidism occurs if the thyroid gland makes too many hormones. T3 and T4 increase the basal metabolic rate.

Two types of thyroiditis initially present with hyperthyroidism and are sometimes followed by a period of hypothyroidism — Hashimoto's thyroiditis and postpartum thyroiditis.

Thyroid hormone effects

Thyroid gland cells The thyroid gland produces three hormones: Triiodothyronine, also known as T3 Tetraiodothyronine, also called thyroxine or T4 Calcitonin Strictly speaking, only T3 and T4 are proper thyroid hormones. It is the T3, derived from T4 or secreted as T3 from the thyroid gland, which is biologically active and influences the activity of all the cells and tissues of your body. Can thyroid disorders be treated? A special examination, known as thyroid scintigraphy, can be used to see whether these nodules are producing abnormal amounts of hormones. Radioactive Iodine may be given to radioablate the thyroid. Having a baby can sometimes trigger a thyroid disorder. This may, rarely, occur from birth, or develop later on in life. It is very unusual for thyroid cancers to present with other symptoms, although in some cases cancer may cause hyperthyroidism. After delivery, the gland becomes inflamed and the condition initially presents with a period of hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism and, usually, a return to normal function. About one in 20 people has some kind of thyroid disorder, which may be temporary or permanent. The thyroid gland can become overactive hyperthyroidism or underactive hypothyroidism.

Radioactive Iodine may be given to radioablate the thyroid. What hormones does my thyroid gland produce? Thyroid gland Thyroid gland The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system and is responsible for producing and releasing thyroid hormones into the bloodstream.

thyroid gland histology

If the entire thyroid gland is removed, hypothyroidism will naturally result, and thyroid hormone substitutes will be needed. Only a little of the T4 and T3 are circulating free in the blood.

The thyroid hormones enter into tissues and regulate how those tissues produce or do not produce certain proteins.

thyroid gland disorders

A special examination, known as thyroid scintigraphy, can be used to see whether these nodules are producing abnormal amounts of hormones.

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Overview of the Thyroid Gland