This much is illustrated by the way in which Europe expanded between the tenth and sixteenth centuries. Here you give your carefully thought out definitions of the key terms, and here you establish the relevant time-frame and issues — in other words, the parameters of the question. You may also see formal writing examples.
You can of course follow the herd and repeat the interpretation given in your textbook. Do not introduce lots of fresh evidence at this stage, though you can certainly introduce the odd extra fact that clinches your case.
You formulate an argument, or perhaps voice alternative lines of argument, that you will substantiate later in the essay. They must contribute to the critical argument, and that requires an ability to engage with three elements if the essay is to be a good one: Conceptualisation Methodology Historiography.
Organizing Your Argument.
As mentioned before, there are many different kinds of essays that you would be asked to make in which one of them includes an analytical essay. The bad thing is that primary sources these days are extremely hard to come by. Then you can develop this idea and substantiate it with evidence.